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Where Can I Buy Designer Benzodiazepines Online Discretely. “Designer drugs,” also referred to as Novel Psychoactive Substances, represent a public health issue of emerging importance. In general, designer drugs are synthetic analogues or derivatives of potentially abusable psychotropic substances. Most are manufactured illicitly outside the United States in countries with high production capabilities and low labor costs.
The chemical structures of many of these drugs have been available in the scientific literature for decades, and many originated as investigational pharmaceuticals for which patents have been filed. Designer drugs allow manufacturers and sellers to evade regulatory constraints and law enforcement in the United States and Western Europe.
The latter can be further divided into BZDs prescribed outside the U.S. and true designer BZDs (DBZDs) not approved for medical use anywhere in the world. DBZDs are often structurally very similar to approved BZDs (exceptions are flutazolam and ketazolam). A few examples follow. Cloniprazepam is metabolized into clonazepam by the removal of the cyclopropylmethyl group (circled in orange). Clonazolam can be considered a hybrid of clonazepam (functional groups circled in blue) and alprazolam (triazolo group circled in purple). Similarly, flubromazolam is a triazolo analog of flubromazepam (difference circled in red). Flubromazepam only differs from phenazepam by the substitution of the chlorine group by fluorine (circled in green). Adapted from Marin et al. with permission from AACC.
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Several BZDs, such as etizolam and phenazepam, are approved in a handful of countries but are often misused in the U.S. and other countries. Etizolam was first introduced in Japan and is also approved in India and Italy. Phenazepam was developed in the Soviet Union and is still approved for use in Russia and other former Soviet states. DBZDs have often been described in the scientific or patent literature as compounds that were explored by pharmaceutical companies but never developed into drugs. They are not approved for medical use anywhere in the world. Where Can I Buy Designer Benzodiazepines Online Discretely
Chemically, non-FDA-approved BZDs maintain much of the primary structure of FDA-approved BZDs. However, they are modified from this primary structure by the addition and/or deletion of certain functional groups. Some DBZDs are hybrid molecules of different FDA-approved BZDs. They may also be either potent metabolites of FDA-approved BZDs or compounds metabolized into FDA-approved BZDs. For example, the DBZD clonazolam may be considered a hybrid of alprazolam (technically a triazolo BZD) and clonazepam, both of which are commonly prescribed BZDs. A newer abused DBZD, flualprazolam, is based on alprazolam with an additional fluorine group. These additions and substitutions at specific locations have generally predictable effects on BZD activity
The chemical isolation, cataloging, and legal scheduling of new compounds is time-consuming. By the time a given compound becomes known to law enforcement and corresponding legislation is enacted, some other similar compound may be synthesized and disseminated.
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Designer benzodiazepines (BZs) constitute a major class of designer drugs. They have similar chemical structures and clinical effects to “traditional” BZs such as lorazepam, alprazolam, and diazepam. Unlike traditional BZs, designer BZs have no approved medical uses in the United States or Western Europe. Some have never been formally studied prior to their sale and consumption. The first novel BZs to appear in Western Europe in the 2000s, phenazepam and etizolam, were not technically considered “designer” BZs due to their approved medical use in Russia and Japan, respectively. Where Can I Buy Designer Benzodiazepines Online Discretely
Between 2010 and 2015 the first true designer BZs were identified that had never been licensed for medical use anywhere in the world. As of November 2018, at least 24 different designer BZs have been identified. They can be classified according to their basic chemical structure as either 1,4-benzodiazepines (a structure shared by most traditional BZs), triazolobenzodiazepines, or thienotriazolodiazepines.
Slight alterations of chemical substituents at various positions can yield a large number of different compounds. Among the 1,4-benzodiazepines, whether traditional or designer, all have an electronegative substituent (such as a halogen or a nitro moiety) at the R7 position, and many have electronegative groups at R2’ as well of the triazolobenzodiazepines, all have electronegative groups at R8 and in many cases at R2’ in addition.
No systematic data exists regarding the precise pharmacodynamic or receptor binding profiles of designer BZs. Given their chemical structures and observed effects, it is inferred that they are allosteric modulators at type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, similar to traditional BZs. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models have been used to estimate the potencies of individual designer BZs based on their chemical structures. From this analysis, the triazolobenzodiazepines were in general the most potent group, but these findings have not been replicated in vivo. Where Can I Buy Designer Benzodiazepines Online Discretely